Police History in iran

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It can be presumed from the pictures that the initial organized military in Iran was in the form of cavalry forces to defend against the warriors. It further seems to be a different organization by having a defined and determined camp with a distinctive uniform which distinguishes them from other categories of people. Grishnman believes that there are pictures of infantry warriors with helmets and vests with half bodies caved on silk dishes. There is also a figure of a horse rider battling with a ghoul who is himself wearing the same cloth with back-toped shoes. Regarding the warrior’s civilization it should be said that they had a splendid location in a castle with towers girdled by walls. According to the same pictures their weapons can be observed such as sword, dirk and arrow shield. Frenum and other pieces of bronze and metal can be found from the exploration of their graves.

With reference to the a.m. and the first law formation some signs could be found in the society in custom category. The custom category became common during Zyyan immigration. Iran was divided into four categories:

1-      Mubedan

2-      Herbodan ( RIT NASHTAR and the militarians)

3-      Cultivators (or VASTERIA) and

4-      The labor men (HUVETI orHUTKHESHAN)

The formation of these categories describe that each category had its own law and specific title such that each category was responsible of a special affair.


Police during Medians

The Median government was under the reign of Assyrian state and in interaction with them influenced them by law and custom. Familiarity with Assyrian system did made the Median to create a stable government. Dyuks son of Frvrtyush was known as a trustable and a capable person due to his love and justice to people such that the Median people used to take their problems and claims to him to settle their dispute. Actually Dyuks is the first Iranian empire who is appointed as a king by people’s vote.

By the formation of the Median government different categories did emerged. The main category formation in Median is based on the Arian custom category. The modern history bespeaks of three categories in this phase: 1- ASSRAN, The druids 2- RASHISHTO, The soldiers 3- VASTRY, the farmers and ranchers.

Police formation during the Medians

Dyux by its authority and in a way of spreading of his justice and thinking struggled to establish discipline in the society. Creating security in each group was an establishment of a strong military organization which led to the formation of an arranged military force following the Assyran. He divided the residents of Asia to military categories and for the first time he formed new regulations that a spearman, an archer and a cavalry should be separate from each other. It is further divided into strategic and tactic units and this was not due to the tribal relations but because of the needs of government military. The military division was divided into three special categories according to arms, clothes and responsibilities.

Grishman narrates that Dyuks did divide the soldiers according to a discipline of: archer, cavalry and infantry. The Dyuks categorization in batches besides maintaining an internal security and discipline had two big goals: firstly the development and conquering of its country and secondly hampering the attacks of invaders to the inland frontiers of the country.


The margin of responsibilities and authorities of police in this era is of great importance with respect to the establishment of a powerful, sovereign and a justice government. The role of protecting measures prior to the occurring of crime is of great importance.

Protection Police

In the reign of Medians, Dyux dispatched missionaries to all areas by his command who were quiet intelligent.

Judicial Police

The responsibility of this type of police was research on emerging of crime and they were too appointed by the empire. They were active invisibly as the king’s spy and as informer. They were a means of notification of people’s claims to the king and therefore arranged the judicial procedure for them. From other side tracking of criminals was upon their responsibility and guilty could escape from penalty. The condition announced by king for protection against crime referred to social harms which gave rise to negative results thus resulting in bigger crimes. The missionaries were responsible to refrain people from lie and wrong deed because they were a symbol of sincerity, justice and rightness to them.


They succeeded the throne during 1042-1282 AD. The huge imperialism of Hykemids was formed for the mere purpose of justice such that the scripts on the stones bespeak of friendship and frankness and the Bistun’ script is refers to the interior crisis. From this one can observe the role of justice and its formation in the Hykemid’s society. It is significant that justice, discipline and security is established on pillars of powerful police system in the society. The need of forming a military during the hykemids could be seen from the metal engraving fixed on mountain wall at the reign of Daryus on the way from Kernamshah to Hamedan. The metal engraving was under the support of big God Ahuramazda. There is also the picture of king supported by two soldiers from behind.


Doubtless the Hykemids kingdom should have been developed on the basis of powerful police system. The imperialism who is trying to maintain justice and to adjudicate hereafter needs a system of police and military. Even one cannot imagine that a society with such attention to different aspects is lack of a powerful police. Daryus based his work on three essentials of: law, justice and security. He then established a concentrated and a lawful official system all around his territories. First of all he should have settled the military situation and should have gathered a powerful force to have had command on all imperial affairs.


Some of the military situations are described in the Bistun. In this inscription Daryus names some military commanders who did accompany him in the interior and exterior disturbances. In ancient Iran Daryus used to appoint persons as his agents in the city centre who could be named as the first police forces. They were called as Khashsaria and their duty was to take necessary measures against indiscipline, disorders and street fights in the city. Hezarpat were another category who acted as commanders of the imperial guard. Their duty was to protect from the kings life and the king’s castle. Havarit was responsible for delivering the daily report to the king and nearly all the imperial affairs was upon their responsibility and therefore they remained in touch with the king. In inscriptions Daryus names a number of commanders who were assigned military affairs plus commanding the warriors and acting as an opposition force during the rebellions.


 These commanders are as follows:

1-       Vidron, commander during the war of Forutish.

2-       Dadarshishesh, commander during war with the rebells.

3-       Voumis, commander of war with Armenia.

4-       Takhmanpad, commander of war with Segareti rebels.

5-       Arat Verdiyi, commander in war of Pars rebals.

6-       Vivaj, commander in Rakhej.

7-       Vidferna, commander in Pars and Maad.

8-       Gonubarvar, commander in the Khuzestan province.

Among the commanders, Vishtasb (the king’s father) should be renowned for being the first commander of Paart and Gorgan states. He fought with the protestors but ‘Bois’ names another commander whose name is Otas, an Iranian commander-in-chief who did conquer the Greek island of Samous.

Dr. Aliabady divides the Hykemid’s government into navy and army from the military point of view. The navy is divided itself into two:

1-       Mikzy state permanent soldiers

2-       Sakhlu state soldiers

The first was a combination of infantry and cavalry and comprised of one thousand people from each. The second was called Jaavidan which was comprised of ten thousand infantry and ten thousand cavalry. They were called so because their population was constant such that when one of them died an alternative was substituted quickly. Jaavidan was known for the imperial guard and was under direct command of Hezarpat. The management of frontier and ruler residing cities and the forts were upon their responsibility.

The lowest category of soldiers was formed of labours who were known for their service-giving and settled in AlFanestin fort. There was also another type of soldiers who were chosen to serve merely at the war period and were normally selected from the foreigners, esp. from the Greeks.

These temporary soldiers dressed up as warriors during the war either on voluntary basis or on compulsory basis. Their formation included two offices: one for the armament and auxiliary affairs of soldiers and the other for inspection of troops division. The Hykemid’s navy, Rataja by name, is not narrated as much as other ones in the history and through that it seems that the Iran navy was not so strong at that time.

During the reign of Hykemenid police was divided into infantry and cavalry. The cavalry was formed from aristocrats and the infantry was formed from farmers and low category people. They had a special arrangement, e.g. Jaavidan troops was at the top who was comprised of ten thousand skilful people who also formed the imperil guard ready to take any action. After that the troops were divided into a group of hundreds and thousands commanded by a commander of higher ranks. The king was the commander-in-chief and usually participated in wars and used to locate himself in the core of troops. The troops were divided into two types: Light Armed and Heavy Armed. Heavy armed riders had armour, saddle and helmet and their horses head and chest was covered with metal plates. Their arms were spear. Shield and dragger whereas the light armed riders had elephant riders and cart riders.

The troop commanders from the aristocrats and were chosen by the king. They were highly accredited, splendored, held assets and big properties similar to forts which were protected by farmers and slaves as security. The Satraps and different troops under their command were under the command of an authorized commander who was in touch with the headquarters. Under the commanders were again the position holders appointed to different affairs and belonged to the second category of society.


Daryus created an important inspection and information network whose agents acted as eyes and ears of the king. They were inspectors of the state, official affairs and troops and used to give the related reports to the king. These people were selected from the accredited, confident and examined people as to eliminate any false and unreal report because in case it happened that their report could result in the death of a Satrap or a justice. Their other responsibility was to inspect the troops and the religious persons who were supposed to execute the slaughtering before the goddess. From the other side the king would dispatch a commander and a financial and official officer to each Satrap who were the representative of the king from one hand and a watchdog on each other’s affairs. Other was the police responsibility to detect and capture the soldiers who escaped from war and surrendered themselves to the enemy camp and upon arresting they were doomed to death.


Gradually by weakness of the giant Hykemenid imperialism, Alexander, the son of Philips and the king of Macedonia aggressed the frontiers of Iran and conquered the cities of Sush and Persepolis. After the death of Alexander the territories were divided by his successors into three: Greek, Egypt and Iran settlers. Tehran was the share of Soluks, one of the commanders of Alexander.

Soluks and his successors established the Soluk dynasty. Since eighty years after the reign of Alexander in Iran and by considering the disputes between the soluks, Arash who belonged to Paarts seized the opportunity from the defeat of Soluks and established the Ashkani dynasty during 246-261 AD under a sovereign government.



In Paart era the king troops were of great importance. The king troops were divided into three groups:

1-      Imperial Guard (soldiers for special security of the king)

2-      Ham Harz, The Dedicated

3-      Regular Soldiers

Local rulers’ soldiers came into being because of political situation. The military forts and the commanding organization in Paart soldiers was under the authority of Argbod which was considered as the highest military rank. The commander of each region was the ruler himself and the noblemen were usually the commanders of the regional divisions. Babak granted the rank of Argbod to his small son, named Ardeshir which meant the commander of Arg (castle). And later it was assumed to the important military posts. It can be easily comprehended that the important post Argbod was given to all division rulers.


1-      The king Soldiers: They were the imperial guard soldiers and during travelling the king was accompanied by infantry armed with axes and riding animals. They were the Hykemanids Jaavidan troops. The infantry were the regular soldiers while those with riding animals formed the security team of the king.

2-      The other type was the Hayyan Ospar, the dedicated. They were famous for their bravery and courage and never show fear to death.

3-      This type of soldiers and their horses were equipped with armour. Another group were those soldiers who were grown up from with military trainings cavalry and were known as noblemen. Their arms were arch and arrow. The infantry were among the weakest, rural and the non-preferred soldiers of Ashkanids.

4-      Local Rulers’ Troop: The formation of these troops was similar to those of the king. This composition was a reflection of social conditions of the country. Each state had a special and a real troop of her own and would prepare her people for and during the war. These troops were equipped with the metal arms like spear sword and would ride on camels.


With the crowning of Ardeshir Babakan, the reign of Sesanids commenced officially. During his crowning ceremony he strictly announced: Feel comfort that the strong and the weak, the humble and the noble, all shall be treated with justice and I shall make justice an acceptable custom and a respectable doctrine. The speeches of Ardeshir Babakan describes the regulation of discipline, security and justice with a strong experience of the ancestors, with accurate military system and with new responsibilities.



The formation of troops and it’s commanding during the Sesanids reign was in the hands of a commander-in-chief. This was a heritage job and was always upon the responsibility of the royal family and all other position holders were under his command. Usually one of them was responsible for the infantry and the other was in-charge of cavalry.

During the reign of Sesanids always some warriors had been renowned as Iran Sepahbod. Khosrow Ist, due to the focus of the military forces under one Iran commander announced an end to it and designated four commanders all around his country. The importance of Sesanid government was due to skill and activity of the cavalry who were called Asvaran. The members of cavalry were chosen from the noblemen and normally had an accurate discipline whereas the infantry was comprised of villagers who bore no weapon and no discipline.


In the Sesanids imperialism, police acted as a disciplined and an influencing force. One regulatory base was established and all important locations were commanded by qualified police officers. He was responsible for good behaviour of people and protection against crime. The role police could be observed in different activities.


One of the main roles of police was exploiting of crime. Once a crime occurred they quickly took action to identify the criminal and the reason of crime. As they were familiar with the judicial procedure therefore they knew how to take necessary measures to keep the information of research remain safe for the court.



One of the responsibilities of police was the capturing of guilty people. After the adjudicating he had to execute the order and had to proceed for the proof of claims and in identifying the criminals. Thus the important role of police force in the security is negligible.


Last Updated on Tuesday, 25 June 2013 09:58
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